Clubfoot has been considered one of the oldest foot abnormalities among children since ancient times. In this disorder seen from birth, The tendons connecting the leg muscles to the wrist are shortened and tightened. Therefore, the ankle turns inward and prevents it from moving correctly.
Diagnosis of the disease is often possible in prenatal ultrasound. Both legs are affected in half of the patients. The probability of its occurrence in newborn boys is twice that of girls, and the influence of genetics is more visible than environmental factors.
In the classification of this disease, there are two types, individual and non-individual, and none will improve without treatment; Fortunately, there are easy corrective methods to treat this condition in the first weeks of birth. Therefore, this condition can be treated and resolved with the proper attention of parents and the supervision of a specialist doctor.
In this regard, the following article examines the causes of occurrence, problems of this condition, and ways to treat it. If you also want to know more about this disease, Follow us to the end of this article.
What is Club Foot?
This disorder is a disease with a prevalence of 1 in every 1,000 live births, which occurs twice as often in male infants as in female infants. In this case, it is difficult for a person to perform regular movements on the heel and sole, and the deviation of the feet tends to move inward, which increases the movement on the side of the wrist.
If such a problem is not treated, Aging may ultimately limit a person’s ability to walk and stand properly. Undoubtedly, such problems will play a prominent role in the isolation and deprivation of a person from social activities.
With the help of the family of a baby with clubfoot syndrome, a specialist doctor can go through the treatment steps correctly and restore the baby’s health. To fully implement this process, the family must be assured of this and cooperate fully with the treating physician.
What Are the Causes of Club Foot Deformity and its Types?
The main reason for this abnormality is rooted in genetics, which occurs in this way. Families who have people with this disorder in their family; Babies with this abnormality will have more chances to be born.
Environmental factors may affect the occurrence of such a disease; There are cases related to the shortness of the ankle tendon. Such as accidents followed by severe fractures where part of the tendon is severely damaged or destroyed. Things like cracked vertebrae and arthrogryposis are also an introduction to the occurrence of clubfoot.
The Disease Occurs in Two Forms, Individual and Non-Individual
In a single or unknown type, the child suffers from this condition without any symptoms of other diseases. This type, the most common type of clubfoot, occurs in children with no other medical problems at birth.
The non-single type that occurs along with nerve and muscle disorders; is more resistant and requires a more extended treatment period. Sometimes, several surgeries must be performed in this type of treatment.
When Can this Disease be Diagnosed?
This disease appears and is revealed in the first hours of every baby’s birth. If such a complication is diagnosed, treating it entirely as soon as possible is necessary.
It will also be possible to diagnose clubfoot during pregnancy and by ultrasound. In this regard, you should know that surgery is not used in the early stages of treatment; Rather, there are physical and very convenient methods for this, which we will discuss further.
When Is the Best Time to Treat Clubfoot?
Because this complication can be recognized at birth and even before that, This vital matter should not be neglected. Because, in this case, the child’s ability to walk gradually decreases. In this case, unfortunately, after some time, painful bone spurs (calluses) are created in the child’s ankles and prevent him from walking properly. Movement on the sides of the ankle will also be accompanied by severe pain and imbalance.
Therefore, the best time to treat this disease with all available methods is immediately after birth and under the supervision of a doctor. Otherwise, with the increase in bone mass, the child will be unable to use shoes and do normal daily activities after some time.
In addition to treating the patient, the role of the attending physician is to assure the baby’s parents of complete treatment and the child’s return to everyday life.
Available Methods to Treat Clubfoot
The main goal of treating this disease is to restore the foot to its normal state and shape. So that the child can use shoes and walk quickly. Also, when standing, place the soles of the feet entirely on the ground. There are different ways to do this, and here we will discuss two of the most essential and famous examples:
Ponseti and French Method to Treat Clubfoot
Today, the Ponseti method is the most widely used technique in the correction of this complication all over the world. In this method, gentle stretching and plastering are used, which gradually corrects the shape of the ankle and puts it in its original state. Although older babies are treated with this method, the best time to do this is immediately after birth.
In this method, the baby’s foot is first returned to its original shape by manipulation by a specialist. Then, in the same position, the plaster will be removed entirely from the tip of the foot to the thigh. This process involves removing the cast, stretching and positioning the foot in the correct position, and re-casting, which is repeated every week until significant improvement is achieved. Usually, this type of treatment will be between 6 and 8 weeks.
After this period, minor surgery is needed to release the Achilles tendon. In this quick operation called tenotomy, The doctor cuts the tendon to the required length. The baby’s foot will remain plaster-in for about three weeks until the tendon has grown sufficiently.
The French method uses the bandage method when pulling and manipulating. This method is known as the physical type, and the process of doing it is followed daily.
The main reason for clubfoot disorder is hereditary. This disease is seen with a prevalence of 1 in 1000 and more in male babies.
This complication is caused by the shortness and stiffness of the ankle tendon; It affects walking and standing. in such a way that after some time, it forces the person to move painfully on the sides of the ankle. Diagnosing this disease at birth or before it will significantly help its treatment.
With the appearance of bone calluses, the treatment becomes more complex, and the pain is much greater. Therefore, it is better to be treated at birth. Ponseti and French methods are the most famous ways to treat this condition. In both methods, the baby’s foot is placed in its original position with changes.
The first method is performed with a weekly cast, and the second method is performed with a daily screw bandage. so that it continues until complete recovery. The length of the treatment period is between 6 to 8 weeks. To open the Achilles, minor surgery is performed, and the Achilles tendon repair period is performed afterward.